Though blunt in speech, he was cautious and farsighted in action. [17], Though Bernadotte declined to help Napoleon Bonaparte stage his coup d'état of November 1799, Napoleon was resolved to win over the "Obstacle Man" and showered him with honors. Peint en buste, légèrement de trois quarts, le souverain porte une armure ornée de fleurs de lis, emblèmes de la maison royale de France. He presided over a period of peace and prosperity, and reigned until his death in 1844. He never learned to speak Swedish or Norwegian; however, this was a minor obstacle as French was widely spoken by the Swedish aristocracy. Napoleon and the Battle of Nations. Louis however saw another way to attain more power. He was initially popular in both countries. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. pp. Charles-Jean se rapproche alors du tsar russe. ", The foreign policy applied by Charles John in the post-Napoleonic era was characterized by the maintenance of balance between the Great Powers and non-involvement into conflicts that took place outside of the Scandinavian peninsula. p. 12. XXXIII Pièces relatives particulièrement à l'Écosse et aux années 1543-1556. In designating him for the crown, the Swedes hoped that he would somehow reconquer Finland and the Åland Islands. [18][19] Upon receiving insult from Dominique Martin Dupuy, the commander of Milan, Bernadotte was to arrest him for insubordination. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe. [24] Bernadotte was very dissatisfied; he finally accepted the post in Vienna, but had to quit owing to the disturbances caused by his hoisting the tricolour over the embassy. Son caractère héréditaire et sacré a fait du roi en France le personnage central de la vie politique et le pivot de la société. On 26 January 1844,[33] his 81st birthday, Charles John was found unconscious in his chambers having suffered a stroke. Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638, in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France. p. 374, Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). [90] The decisive reason was that Napoleon, before marching to Moscow, had to secure his rear and dared not trust a Swedish continental foothold behind him. [70] Despite the fact that Napoleon favored his ally Danish King Frederick VI, Danish Prince Frederick Christian initially had the most support to become Swedish Crown Prince as well. Despite their rivalry, Napoleon felt that Bernadotte alone had the popularity, administrative and military skill to safeguard the Empire he had built. 245–46, Meredith, William George (1829). [17] After the 18th Fructidor, Napoleon ordered his generals to collect from their respective divisions' addresses in favor of the coup d'état of that day; but Bernadotte sent an address to the directory different from that which Napoleon wished for and without conveying it through Napoleon's hands. [81], “I have beheld war near at hand, and I know all its evils: for it is not conquest which can console a country for the blood of her children, spilt on a foreign land. pp. Following his first meeting with his new heir, Charles XIII (who had initially opposed Bernadotte's candidacy) remarked to his aide-de-camp count Charles de Suremain "My dear Suremain, I have gambled heavily, and I believe that after all I have won. [81][33], The monument outside the Royal Palace in Oslo, He also faced challenges in Norway. Jean-Baptiste was born in early hours on 26 January 1763 at Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and as the younger son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. [17], After the Treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France. Bernadotte’s dream dissolved, and his brief visit to Paris after the armistice was not glorious. Bernadotte campaigned in Germany during the winter following his marriage, and from July to September 1799 he was minister of war. Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John; Harkin, James (2013). Cette opération est réalisée dans l’antichambre de l’Œil de bœuf, qui jouxte la chambre du Roi. King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 to 1844, and before his elevation to the throne General Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, a celebrated marshal of Napoleon. He re-organized and trained his forces, named by the Emperor as the Army of Antwerp, by instilling discipline in old soldiers too long at the depots and teaching raw conscripts their trade. This time Bernadotte's depleted forces - he had only 6,000 infantry left - broke and fled (Bernadotte's Corps was not the only one to have broken that day, Masséna's troops were also routed by the attack). It is pointed out as the origin of Swedish neutrality. [58] Ironically, Bernadotte did eventually wear a crown, not through the auspices of Napoleon, but as an enemy of France. Hampered by the very poor state of the roads, he could not engage in the Battle of Jena, though he effectively compelled the Prussians to retreat from both battlefields by posting his troops on the heights of Apolda. En 1813, il participe à la bataille de Leipzig où Napoléon Ier est vaincu. Sweden reluctantly declared war against the UK but it was treated by both countries as being merely nominal, although Swedish imports of British goods decreased from £4,871 million in 1810 to £523 million in the following year. Urged by the allies, however, Charles John agreed to take part in the great campaign against Napoleon and to postpone his war with Denmark. Smith, Digby (2001). Johann Heinrich Friedrich Berlien (1846). [14], At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), where the Austrians outnumbered the French three-to-one,[15] Bernadotte's rear-guard successfully repulsed numerous attacks while inflicting heavy losses on the enemy, preventing the Archduke Charles from cutting off the retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Würzburg. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. A post shared by Charles-Laurent Lelievre (@laurent.xiv) on Feb 18, 2017 at 11:45am PST Given interest in this stud, GPB decided to do some research and present 7 facts about Charles … Napoleon now tried to prevent any reorientation of Swedish foreign policy and moreover sent an immediate demand that Sweden declare war on Great Britain; the Swedes had no choice, but, though technically in a state of war between 1810 and 1812, Sweden and Great Britain did not engage in active hostilities. In 1813, following the sudden unprovoked French invasion of Swedish Pomerania, Crown Prince Charles John aligned Sweden with Napoleon's enemies in the Sixth Coalition, wherein he authored the Allied campaign plan, and commanded the Allied Army of the North that made the decisive attack on the last day of the catastrophic French defeat at Leipzig. [81] Charles John survived the abdication controversy and he went on to have his silver jubilee, which was celebrated with great enthusiasm on 18 February 1843. [33][17], However, during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, he was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt (14 October 1806). Soon after his birth 'Baptiste' was added to his name, to distinguish him fr… 311–12, Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). [4][17], Bust of a young Bernadotte at the Bernadotte Museum in Pau, France, After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris. However, Eugène, serving as viceroy in Italy, did not wish to convert to Lutheranism, a prerequisite for accepting the Swedish offer. 2016 - Histoire des Rois et Reines d\'Europe - Altesses : Louis XIV, roi de France, en 1666, par Testelin It is likely that IX Corps' poor performance would have been forgotten, and Bernadotte would have retained his command, had he never published the controversial Order of the Day. Expand/collapse Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805. Les premiers conseils se tiennent à Versailles dès le 3 septembre. [17] Paul Barras, one of five directors, was cautious that Napoleon would overturn the Republic, so he appointed Bernadotte commander-in-chief of the Italian Army in order to offset Napoleon's power. 68–152. [4] Subsequently, the Régiment stationed in Besançon, Grenoble, Vienne, Marseille and Île de Ré. 198–99. Recueil de lettres originales, de minutes et de pièces réunies par Gaignières, pour servir à l'histoire de France depuis le règne de Charles VII, jusqu'à celui de Louis XIV. [17] In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine. CHARLES XIV. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe. Prior to this, New Year’s was celebrated from 25 March 25 to 1 April according to the Roman calendar. [17] As a reward for his services at Austerlitz, he became the 1st Sovereign Prince of Ponte Corvo (5 June 1806), a district of Naples formerly subject to the Pope. [2] He assumed the name Charles John and became the de facto regent and head of state. Voir les détails. On the other hand, the King’s autocratic tendencies, restrictions on the liberty of the press, and his reluctance to introduce liberal reforms in commercial and industrial policy and in the organization of the Swedish Riksdag led to a growing opposition that culminated during the late 1830s with the trial of journalist M.J. Crusenstolpe and the resultant Rabulist riots, leading to some demands for his abdication. [103] It made a sharp contrast with Sweden's previous hegemonic expansionism resulting in uninterrupted wars with neighboring countries for centuries, and he successfully kept his kingdoms in a state of peace from 1814 until his death. After the Peace of Tilsit, in 1808, as well-liked governor of the Hanseatic towns, where he once again proved his administrative and diplomatic abilities,[55] he was to direct the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent, which went back to Spain to fight against Napoleon at the start of the Peninsular War. Bernadotte moved West as ordered, pursued by Bennigsen where he ably defeated the numerically superior Russian vanguard at Mohrungen (25 January 1807). The family name was originally du Poey (or de Pouey), but was changed to Bernadotte—a surname of an ancestress at the beginning of the 17th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Although the Swedish troops contributed to the allied successes, Charles John intended to conserve his forces for the war with Denmark, and the Prussians bore the brunt of the fighting. Les meilleures offres pour France Royale - Ecu 1647 K Bordeaux Louis XIV, Qualité !! Louis XIV est un roi de France né le 5 septembre 1638 (à Saint-Germain-en-Laye) et mort le 1 er septembre 1715 (à Versailles) à l'âge de 76 ans.On l'appelait le Roi soleil.. Charles John had been regent and de facto head of state upon his arrival, and took an increasing role in government from 1812 onward, with Charles XIII reduced to a mute witness in government councils following a stroke. Author of. [91][93] Moreover, it antagonized the pro-French faction at the Swedish court. pp. Nouvel abrégé chronologique de l'histoire de France : contenant les événemens de notre histoire depuis Clovis jusqu'à la mort de Louis XIV. His posting was cancelled, however, after the Sale of Louisiana. Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Carl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He would rule France as a Constitutional Monarch and leave Oscar as Regent in Sweden and Norway. [106] I could perhaps have been able to agree to become Napoleon’s ally: but when he attacked the country that had placed its fate in my hands, he could find in me no other than an opponent. Les rois de France sont indissociables de l'histoire de notre pays. The currier arrived in France in September the same year, whereupon Bernadotte sat for the popular court painter François Gérard. Louis XIV, the highly-feted “Sun King”, was renowned for his political and cultural influence and for raising France to a new level of prominence in seventeenth-century Europe. "[111], His remains were interred after a state funeral in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church. On the second day of battle, 6 July 1809, IX Corps, having been mauled the night before, wherein Bernadotte struggled to rally his demoralized Saxons, was attacked by two Austrian corps, as part of Archduke Charles's effort to break the French line. Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte;[1] 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. [33] The problem of Charles's successor had been acute almost from the time he had ascended the throne a year earlier. "Bernadotte and Swedish-American Relations, 1810–1814,", Kurtz, Harold. Thus, when force might have imposed any system on the Norwegians (for a time at least), the Crown Prince insisted on a constitutional settlement. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, he exhibited great military talent, rapidly rising through the ranks, and was made a brigadier general by 1794. [72] The matter was decided by an obscure Swedish courtier, nephew of Count Gustav Mörner,[73] the commander of the Swedish force captured by Bernadotte at Lübeck, Baron Karl Otto Mörner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte. Oeuvres , Oeuvres. [105], Equestrian statue in Stockholm depicting Charles XIV John, His domestic policy particularly focused on promotion of economy and investment in social overhead capital, and the long peace since 1814 led to an increased prosperity for the country. Charles XIV & III John (Swedish: Karl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later renamed Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Karl XIV Johan) and King of Norway (as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. 6–7. Son règne (exceptionnellement long) voit la France remplacer l'Espagne au premier rang en Europe. This alliance was formed together by smaller, weaker countries to match France’s strength. Vercingétorix Hugues Capet Charles VII Saint-Barthélémy Louis XIV Encyclopédie Fédération 18-Brumaire 1848 Exposition 1900 armistice 1918 Libération Paris. [21], He had his first interview with Napoleon in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division. [4][17] This was seen as an appointment of trust as while Napoleon embarked on his summer Italian Campaign, where he ultimately prevailed at the Battle of Marengo, he left Bernadotte not far from Paris with an army. [94] Thereafter, the Crown Prince declared the neutrality of Sweden and opened negotiations with the UK and Russia. This put Norway into a union with Sweden, which lasted for almost a century before being peacefully dissolved in 1905. Charles John's reign witnessed the completion of the southern Göt… In 1802 he fell under suspicion of complicity with a group of army officers of republican sympathies who disseminated anti-Bonapartist pamphlets and propaganda from the city of Rennes (the “Rennes plot”). Afterwards, Bernadotte was accused of deliberately refusing to support Davout, who had unexpectedly encountered the Prussian main army at Auerstädt, out of jealousy, and Napoleon, if reminiscences from St. Helena may be believed, once intended to put Bernadotte before a court-martial. [122], Template:Grand Masters of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons, "Carl Johan" redirects here. Pp. His foreign policy inaugurated a long and favourable period of peace, based on good relations with Russia and Great Britain. In domestic affairs, farsighted legislation helped the rapid expansion of Swedish agriculture and the Norwegian shipping trade; in Sweden, the famous Göta Canal was completed, postwar financial problems were solved, and during the reign both countries enjoyed a rapid increase in population. [10], Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. In modern Norwegian lists of kings he is called Charles III John.He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty.. Born in Pau in southern France, Bernadotte joined the French Royal Army in 1780. Managed by: Alex Moes: Last Updated: Barton, D. Plunkett (1921). Ganzon, Guadalupe Fores-; Mañeru, Luis (19 July 1995). Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial. [87], Soon after Charles John's arrival in Sweden, Napoleon compelled him to accede to the Continental System and declare war against the United Kingdom; otherwise, Sweden would have to face the determination of France, Denmark and Russia. [71] The Swedish crown prince even unsuccessfully sought Napoleon's support to assist Sweden in conquering Norway. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium King Charles Xiv John Of Sweden … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Danish prince Christian August had been elected crown prince but died suddenly in 1810, and the Swedes turned to Napoleon for advice. Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte French revolutionary soldier: Marshal of France under Napoleon: elected Crown Prince of Sweden 1810: King Charles XIV... Charles XIV , 1763-1844. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 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